DEFENSIVE BACK (DB). Die Cornerbacks (CB) und Safeties (S) stehen den WR gegenüber und versuchen den Ball abzufangen oder den. WR zu stoppen. KICKER (K). Schießt Fieldgoals und PAT und führt die Kick-Off s durch. PUNTER (P). Führt die Befreiungskicks aus. THAT'S AMERICAN FOOTBALL. PLAYERS. KICKER (K). Schießt Fieldgoals und PAT und führt die Kick-Off s durch. PUNTER (P). Führt die Befreiungskicks aus. THAT'S AMERICAN FOOTBALL. PLAYERS.
American Football Rules VideoLearn American Football in 5 Minutes
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American football rules -Tackles sind dabei die schwersten und kräftigsten Spieler im Angriff. Die Punktevergabe ist etwas komplizierter als bei anderen Sportarten. Mannschaft und Trainer müssen sich in der Teamzone aufhalten. Foul, bei dem ein Spieler der gegnerischen Mannschaft festgehalten wird, der sich nicht im Ballbesitz befindet. Der fangende Spieler nicht direkt an der Line of Scrimmage steht. Landet der Ball im Seitenaus oder wird er gegen einen der Pfosten des Goalposts getreten, gilt auch dieser letzte Versuch als wirkungslos und das Angriffsrecht wechselt. Sobald der Punktgewinn vom Schiedsrichter anerkannt wurde, darf die unterlegene Mannschaft, gegen welche james bond cardigan casino royale Safety erzielt wurde, einen Free Kick ausführen. Die Offense startet ihren Angriffszug an der Yard-Linie. Punter sind Andrej martin, die auf diese Aufgabe spezialisiert sind. Sie sollten bequem und für hohe Agilität auf dem Spielfeld geeignet sein. Das kommt allerdings recht selten vor, die anderen Möglichkeiten zum Punktgewinn werden Sie p4wnyhof casino mage viel häufiger sehen. Zu den wichtigsten Regeln gehören die einzelnen Versuche. Ist ein illegaler Block unterhalb der Gürtellinie in den Rücken des Gegners. Bei einem Holding durch einen Offensivspieler gibt es eine Raumstrafe von 10 Yards. Backs Beschreibt alle Spieler, die Beste Spielothek in Mariaberg finden direkt auf der Line of Scrimmage stehen, sondern leicht versetzt dahinter. Der rabenschwarze Tag des Mason Crosby ran. Jede Mannschaft hat hier die Gelegenheit, durch einen Kick direkt von der Yard-Linie durch die beiden Torstangen zu treffen. Wird nur von echten NFL-Experten benutzt. Players on the Defensive linea linebackerand defensive backs cornerbacks and American football safeties attempt to tackle the offensive player who carries the football. Most of Beste Spielothek in Bierendorf finden game is played on yards in the middle. Halfbacks may also serve as receivers. The end zonesone at each end of the field, are 10 yards long. Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. Representatives of Yale, ColumbiaPrinceton and Rutgers met on October 19, to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Except if the team that receives the kickoff scores a field goal on its first possession, it then kicks off to the opposing team with an opportunity to score; if the score is tied again after that possession, true sudden death slots casino hd cheats apply. Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The kicking team begins behind the kroatien wetter im juni, while the receiving team must remain at least 10 yards downfield before the ball is kicked. The National Football League NFLa group kayserispor bursaspor professional Beste Spielothek in Bamme finden that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, Beste Spielothek in Breitenfurt-Ost finden to solve these problems. Retrieved October 1, Retrieved November 22, The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. The sport is played on a grass or artificial turf field. The players on defense may arrange themselves in Beste Spielothek in Foschenroda finden manner, as long as all players are "behind the line" that is, on the side of the line nearest their own end zone.
The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football. Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.
The visiting team is allowed to call 'heads' or 'tails'; the winner of the toss is allowed to decide between choosing whether to receive or kick off the ball or choosing which goal they want to defend, but they can also defer their choice until the second half.
The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.
Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.
Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours. An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official.
If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense.
The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.
There are two main ways that the offense can advance the ball: In a typical play, the quarterback calls the play, and the center passes the ball backwards and under their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.
The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out of bounds, or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.
A forward pass can only be legally attempted if the passer is behind the line of scrimmage. The offense is given a series of four plays, known as downs.
If the offense advances ten or more yards in the four downs, they are awarded a new set of four downs. If they fail to advance ten yards, possession of the football is turned over to the defense.
In most situations, if the offense reaches their fourth down they will punt the ball to the other team, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field; if they are in field goal range , they might also attempt to score a field goal.
There are two categories of kicks in football: On a kickoff, the ball is placed at the yard line of the kicking team in professional and college play and at the yard line in high school play.
The ball may be drop-kicked or place-kicked. If a place kick is chosen, the ball can be placed on the ground or on a tee, and a holder may be used in either case.
On a safety kick, the kicking team kicks the ball from their own yard line. They can punt, drop-kick or place-kick the ball, but a tee may not be used in professional play.
Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance the ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.
The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points.
If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched.
This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.
Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.
Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. An official who spots multiple fouls will throw their hat as a secondary signal.
Another set of officials, the chain crew , are responsible for moving the chains. The chains, consisting of two large sticks with a yard-long chain between them, are used to measure for a first down.
The chain crew stays on the sidelines during the game, but if requested by the officials they will briefly bring the chains on to the field to measure.
A typical chain crew will have at least three people — two members of the chain crew will hold either of the two sticks, while a third will hold the down marker.
The down marker, a large stick with a dial on it, is flipped after each play to indicate the current down, and is typically moved to the approximate spot of the ball.
The chain crew system has been used for over years and is considered to be an accurate measure of distance, rarely subject to criticism from either side.
Football is a full-contact sport, and injuries are relatively common. Most injuries occur during training sessions, particularly ones that involve contact between players.
At a minimum players must wear a football helmet and a set of shoulder pads , but individual leagues may require additional padding such as thigh pads and guards, knee pads, chest protectors, and mouthguards.
The most common types of injuries are strains , sprains , bruises , fractures, dislocations , and concussions.
Repeated concussions and possibly sub-concussive head impacts  can increase a person's risk in later life for CTE chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mental health issues such as dementia , Parkinson's disease , and depression.
A study performed by the VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University's school of medicine found that tackle football before age 12 was correlated with earlier onset of symptoms of CTE, but not with symptom severity.
More specifically, each year a player played tackle football under age 12 predicted earlier onset of cognitive, behavioral, and mood problems by an average of two and a half years.
College football is the third-most popular sport in the United States, behind professional baseball and professional football.
High school football is the most popular sport in the United States played by boys; over 1. The NFHS is the largest organization for high school football, with member associations in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia.
USA Football is the governing body for youth and amateur football,  and Pop Warner Little Scholars is the largest organization for youth football.
Several professional football leagues have been formed as rival leagues to the NFL. An earlier league, the All-America Football Conference , was in play from to Other attempts to start rival leagues have been far less successful.
The World Football League WFL played for two seasons, in and , but faced monetary issues so severe that the league could not pay its players. In its second and final season the WFL attempted to establish a stable credit rating, but the league disbanded before its second season could be completed.
American football leagues exist throughout the world, but the game has yet to achieve the international success and popularity of baseball and basketball.
The league's championship game is the Eurobowl. All of these countries rank far below the United States, which is dominant at the international level.
Football is not an Olympic sport , but it was a demonstration sport at the Summer Olympics. Large team sizes are an additional difficulty, due to the Olympics' set limit of 10, athletes and coaches.
American football also has the issue of global visibility. Professional football has ranked as the most popular sport in the poll since , when it surpassed baseball for the first time.
In a study, the NCAA estimated there were around 1. American football also plays a significant role in American culture. The day on which the Super Bowl is held is considered a de facto national holiday ,  and in parts of the country like Texas , the sport has been compared to a religion.
Merit is rewarded, not punished. Masculinity is celebrated, not feminized. People of various beliefs and backgrounds — a melting pot, if you will — must unify for a common goal for the team to be successful".
The safety of the sport has also sparked national controversy in American popular culture. It is often received as "overly aggressive", and defamiliarized in popular culture.
Bennet Omalu , a neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE. American football was the second-most popular sport in Mexico in the s, with the game being particularly popular in colleges.
American football is the fifth most popular sport in Mexico and the country has the highest rating of the NFL outside the United States.
Japan was introduced to the sport in by Paul Rusch , a teacher and Christian missionary who helped establish football teams at three universities in Tokyo.
Play was halted during World War II, but began to grow in popularity again after the war. As of [update] , there are more than high school football teams in Japan, with over 15, participants, and over teams play in the Kantoh Collegiate Football Association KCFA.
Europe is a major target for expansion of the game by football organizers. In the United Kingdom in the s, the sport was fairly popular, with the Super Bowl being watched by over 4 million people about 1 out of every 14 Britons.
The sport's popularity faded over the s, coinciding with the establishment of the Premier League. According to BBC America , there is a "social stigma" surrounding American football in the UK, with many Brits feeling the sport has no right to call itself 'football' due to the small emphasis on kicking.
Super Bowl viewership has also rebounded, with over 4. The sport is played in European countries such as Switzerland, which has American football clubs in every major city,  and Germany, where the sport has around 45, registered amateur players.
But in these countries American football has not yet reached the same level of popularity it has, for example, in North America.
Brazil's audience is the 3rd of the world, behind only Mexico and United States. Rumors were that a Pro Bowl edition could be held there.
One of the reasons of that boom in audience is the placekicker of Kansas City Chiefs , Cairo Santos , the first Brazilian player to reach some worldwide success in the sport.
To , a strongest league will get start in June, including 32 teams around the country, in 4 conferences. The recent born team already won his state championship, and for the Brazilian top league already has signed with former NFL's player Nic Harris.
In other countries of South America there was a very important evolution with regard to American Football, since when has begun the practice of this sport in Argentina.
Currently there are three American Football Leagues in that country: In addition there are teams in the formation stage in several provinces, such as in the province of Santa Fe.
Canadian football , the predominant form of football in Canada, is closely related to American football — both sports developed from rugby, and the two sports are considered to be the chief variants of gridiron football.
Punting is illegal, and kickoffs are attempted from the goal line. Large overhead nets deflect forward passes and kicks that hit them, and deflected kicks are live balls that may be recovered by either team.
Like in arena football, teams in indoor football leagues play in arenas, but games are only attended by a small number of fans, and most players are semi-professional athletes.
Indoor football leagues are unstable, with franchises regularly moving from one league to another or merging with other teams, and teams or entire leagues dissolving entirely.
There are several non-contact variants of American football, such as flag football. A game of touch football may require that the player be touched with either one or two hands to be considered down, depending on the rules used.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American variation of gridiron football.
For a broader usage of the name, see American football disambiguation. Larry Fitzgerald in blue catches a pass while Cortland Finnegan in red plays defense at the Pro Bowl.
Team sport ball game. Football leather prolate spheroid Football helmet Pads shoulder and knee. History of American football.
Official American football , Chain crew , and Penalty gridiron football. American football protective equipment , Concussions in American football , and Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
American football in the United States. Canadian football , Arena football , and Flag football. American football strategy College football Comparison of American football and rugby union Comparison of American football and rugby league Concussions in American football Fantasy football American Glossary of American football List of American football players List of American football stadiums by capacity List of leagues of American and Canadian football Pro Football Hall of Fame Steroid use in American football.
Retrieved January 14, Retrieved 13 July What's in a Name? Retrieved April 19, Retrieved June 28, American football in coastal Australia". Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved November 24, Professional Football Researchers Association.
Archived from the original on January 2, National Collegiate Athletic Association. Archived from the original on April 30, Archived from the original PDF on September 28, Retrieved November 25, Archived from the original on January 15, The History of American Football: Its Great Teams, Players, and Coaches.
Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved March 19, Retrieved January 30, Retrieved March 20, Archived from the original PDF on October 19, Archived from the original on January 13, Russo January 2, Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved November 20, Retrieved November 23, Retrieved November 22, The Unsung Heroes of Football".
Retrieved January 12, Players on a Punt Team". Department of Statistical Science. Retrieved October 23, Retrieved September 30, Retrieved April 23, Archived from the original PDF on March 3, Retrieved October 1, Retrieved December 2, NFL games running longer in ".
Retrieved December 3, Retrieved October 19, The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, John, Allan December 18, Retrieved November 2, Retrieved October 22, Retrieved October 8, Retrieved September 20, Kowall MD, Thor D.
Cantu MD, Douglas I. Katz MD, Christine E. Solomon PhD, Michael D. Nowinski PhD, Robert A. Stern PhD, Ann C. McKee MD, April 30, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved November 26, South China Morning Post.
Retrieved December 6, Retrieved November 28, If a game goes to overtime, a coin toss is held before the start of overtime, but tosses are not held before the start of subsequent overtime periods.
In college, for example, the loser of the toss to start overtime has first choice in the second overtime period.
The choices available to the captains in overtime vary among the NFL, college, and various states' high school rules.
In high school, the coin toss may be held between the captains or coaches earlier before the start of the game.
At three minutes before kickoff, the captains meet for a simulated coin toss, where the referee announces the results of the earlier toss. The XFL did not implement a coin toss; instead an event took place called the "opening scramble", in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away in order to determine possession.
Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the yard lines, with the ball being placed at the yard line.
At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues.
The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. In the NFL, unless you are tagged by an opposing player or give yourself up, you are not down.
A player carrying the ball the runner is downed when any of the following occurs:. The majority of a football game takes place on plays, or downs , that begin at the line of scrimmage.
The officials spot the ball place it in a designated spot on the field on the line of scrimmage and declare it ready for play.
The width of the spotted football defines the width of the neutral zone , an area of the field no player other than the snapper may position himself in or above before the snap.
Each team has its own line of scrimmage, thought of as a vertical plane from sideline to sideline that passes through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line.
A typical offense is made up of a quarterback , five offensive linemen , two wide receivers , a running back , a fullback , and a tight end , however teams will vary their personnel on the field to fit any given play.
A quarterback is essentially the leader of the offense. It is most often their responsibility to pass along the play called to the rest of the players in the huddle before any given play.
A quarterback is the primary ball handler on offense. It is their responsibility to call the snap count for the ball to enter play.
Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to one of their running backs, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to.
In some instances, the quarterback will run the ball themselves. A quarterback is guarded by their offensive linemen.
The offensive line is made up of a left and right tackle , a left and right guard , and a center. It is the center's responsibility to hike the ball to the quarterback.
An offensive line has two different jobs. When the offense runs a pass play, it is their job to guard the quarterback from the defense that are rushing.
When the offense runs a run play, it is their job to clear a path for the running back to run through.
The running back also has multiple roles. They will either take the ball from the quarterback and run, move up and help the offensive line block, or go out and catch a pass.
While the role of the fullback is deteriorating currently among professional leagues, it is their primary responsibility to lead the running back.
Running backs and fullbacks are sometimes also called a halfback, a wingback, or a slotback. Like the running back, the tight end also has multiple roles.
They will either help the offensive line protect the quarterback, block on run plays, or run or catch the ball themselves. The wide receivers primary role is to run out into the field of play and catch the ball, although they will also block in some instances.
The players on offense must arrange themselves in a formation , all behind their line of scrimmage that is, on their side of the ball. For reasons of safety and competitive balance, there are strict rules which define the way in which the offensive players may line up.
Seven players must line up directly on the line of scrimmage while four players line up behind the line of scrimmage. Within this formation, there are six eligible receivers who may receive a forward pass during play.
These eligible receivers are either the running back, fullback, tight end, or wide receivers. The remaining five linemen, often called interior linemen do not normally handle the ball during a play.
Because of these rules, various leagues of American football have enacted strict rules of uniform numbering so officials may more easily judge which players were eligible and which were not at the start of a play.
For example, in college football , ineligible players wear numbers 50—79, while eligible receivers wear 1—49 or 80— Even within this structure, offenses can still present a wide number of formations, so long as they maintain the "seven and four" arrangement.
Receivers, for example, may play close to the other linemen or they may play some distance down the line of scrimmage, where they would sometimes be called split ends.
Of the four backs, they may play behind the linemen, or may play "split out" to provide additional wide receivers. These additional receivers can be flankers if they play split far wide, but still in the backfield or slot receivers if they play in the "slot" between the split end and the rest of the offensive line.
The players on defense may arrange themselves in any manner, as long as all players are "behind the line" that is, on the side of the line nearest their own end zone.
Players who line up opposite the offensive line are called defensive linemen , usually with one or two defensive tackles in the middle a single defensive tackle is often called the nose guard or nose tackle and with one defensive end on each side.
A defensive lineman's job is typically to put pressure on the opposing teams quarterback by rushing the offensive line. The defensive line is also most often the first set of players the opponent must get through should they choose to run the ball.
Behind the linemen are the linebackers. A linebackers job can be any number of things, including trying to rush the opposing teams quarterback, stopping the opponents running back on run plays, or covering the opponents tight end or wide receivers.
Positioned opposite the wide receivers are the cornerbacks. Their primary responsibility is to cover the wide receivers. Farthest back from the line are the safeties , usually in the middle of the field behind the linebackers.
The safeties are the last line of defense against the opponent. Like a linebacker, a safety's role can vary, however their most common role is to help the cornerbacks cover the opponent's wide receivers, which is called "double coverage".
The linemen and linebackers close to the line of scrimmage, are often referred to as playing "in the box".
Players outside "the box" usually cornerbacks and safeties are collectively referred to as the "secondary".
A scrimmage down begins with a snap , where the center throws or hands the ball backward to one of the backs, usually the quarterback.
The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball, or runs with it himself. The down ends when the ball becomes dead see below.
The ball is typically next spotted where the ball became dead; however, if it became dead outside the hash marks, it is brought in on the same yard line to the nearest hash mark.
This spot becomes the line of scrimmage for the next play. In the case of an incomplete forward pass, the ball is returned to the spot where it was last snapped to begin the next play.
A fumbled ball that goes out of bounds is declared dead and possession remains with the team that most recently had control of the ball.
The nearest official typically blows his whistle after the ball becomes dead to alert the players that the down has already ended. If the ball is alive and the official sounds an inadvertent whistle , then the ball still becomes dead, but the team in possession of the ball may elect to have the down replayed or take the spot where the ball was declared dead.
If the ball was loose from a fumble, then the ball can be put into play at the spot of the fumble. If the ball was in flight from a kick or a pass, then the down is always replayed.
A free kick is a down which does not occur from scrimmage. The kicking team begins behind the ball, while the receiving team must remain at least 10 yards downfield before the ball is kicked.
A kickoff is a type of free kick where the ball is placed on a tee or held at the kicking team's yard line 40 for high school.
In the NFL Season, changes were made regarding kickoffs to limit injuries. Kickoffs were returned from the yard line to the yard line, repealing a rule change.
In addition, players on the kickoff coverage team cannot line up more than 5 yards behind the kickoff line, minimizing running starts and thus reducing the speed of collisions.
A valid kickoff must travel at least this yard distance to the receiving team's restraining line, after which any player of either team may catch or pick up the ball and try to advance it a member of the kicking team may only recover a kickoff and may not advance it before being downed see "Downed player," below.
In most cases, the ball is kicked as far as possible typically 40 to 70 yards , after which a player of the receiving team is usually able to secure possession since the members of the kicking team cannot start downfield until after the ball is kicked.
Occasionally, for tactical reasons, the kicking team may instead choose to attempt an onside kick, in which the kicker tries to kick the ball along the ground just over the required yard distance in such a manner that one of his own teammates can recover the ball for the kicking side.
If it is touched before ten yards, the ball is dead and a re-kick or spot of the ball will be rewarded to the receiving team. A member of the receiving team gaining possession of the ball on a kickoff may attempt to advance it as far as he can toward the kicking team's goal line before being downed.
Once the ball carrier is downed, the play is whistled dead and the ball is placed by the officials at the point where the play ended; this spot then becomes the line of scrimmage for the ensuing play.
A kick that travels through or goes out of bounds within the end zone without being touched, or is caught by the receiving team in the end zone but not advanced out of it, results in a touchback; the ball is then placed at the receiving team's yard line, which becomes the line of scrimmage.
A kickoff that goes out of bounds anywhere other than the end zone before being touched by the receiving team is an illegal kick: A free kick is also used to restart the game following a safety.
The team that was trapped in its own end zone, therefore conceding two points to the other team, kicks the ball from its own yard line.
This can be a place kick in the NFL, a tee cannot be used , drop kick or punt. In the NFL and high school, a free kick may be taken on the play immediately after a fair catch ; see "fair catch kick" below.
A field goal is scored when the ball is place kicked, drop kicked, or free kicked after a fair catch or awarded fair catch High School or NFL only between the goal posts behind the opponent's end zone.
The most common type of kick used is the place kick. For a place kick, the ball must first be snapped to a placeholder, who holds the ball upright on the ground with his fingertip so that it may be kicked.
Three points are scored if the ball crosses between the two upright posts and above the crossbar and remains over. If a field goal is missed, the ball is returned to the original line of scrimmage in the NFL, to the spot of the kick; in high school, to the yard line if the ball enters the end zone, or otherwise where the ball becomes dead after the kick or to the yard line if that is further from the goal line, and possession is given to the other team.
If the ball does not go out of bounds, the other team may catch the kicked ball and attempt to advance it, but this is usually not advantageous.
One official is positioned under each goalpost; if either one rules the field goal no good, then the field goal is unsuccessful.
A successful field goal is signaled by an official extending both arms vertically above the head. A team that successfully kicks a field goal kicks off to the opposing team on the next play.
A touchdown is earned when a player has legal possession of the ball and the ball touches or goes over the imaginary vertical plane above the opposing team's goal line.
After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts a try for 1 or 2 points see below. A successful touchdown is signaled by an official extending both arms vertically above the head.
A touchdown is worth six points, except in the defunct WFL where it was worth seven points. For statistical purposes, the player who advances the ball into or catches it in the end zone is credited with the touchdown.
If a forward pass was thrown on the play, the throwing player is also credited with a passing touchdown. The ball is spotted at the yard line for 1-point conversions ; 2-yard line for 2-point conversions for the NFL and on 3-yard line for college and high school, and the team is given one un-timed play to earn points.
The uncommon safety is scored if a player causes the ball to become dead in his own end zone; two points are awarded to the opposing usually defending team.
This can happen if a player is either downed or goes out of bounds in the end zone while carrying the ball, or if he fumbles the ball, and it goes out of bounds in the end zone.
A safety is also awarded to the defensive team if the offensive team commits a foul which is enforced in its own end zone. A safety is not awarded if a player intercepts a pass or receives a kick in his own end zone and is downed there.
This situation, in which the opponent caused the ball to enter the end zone, is called a touchback ; no points are scored, and the team that gained possession of the ball is awarded possession at its own yard line.
If the interception or reception occurs outside the end zone, and the player is carried into the end zone by momentum, the ball is placed at the spot of the catch and no safety is awarded.
A safety is signaled by a referee holding both palms together above the head, fingertips pointing upwards. After a safety, the team that conceded the safety kicks a free kick which may be a punt, place kick, or drop kick from its yard line.
A free kick see above may be taken on the play immediately after any fair catch of a punt. The ball must be held on the ground by a member of the kicking team or drop kicked; a tee may not be used.
High school kickers may use a tee. This is both a field goal attempt and a free kick; if the ball is kicked between the goal posts, three points are scored for the kicking team.
This is the only case where a free kick may score points. This method of scoring is extremely rare, last successfully completed in the NFL by Ray Wersching in It is only advantageous when a team catches a very short punt with very little time left.
Note that a team is unlikely to be punting with only a few seconds left in a half or overtime, and it is rarer still for punts to be caught near field goal range.
The officials' signal for a successful fair catch kick is the same as for a field goal. The game is officiated by a crew of three to seven officials.
Every crew will consist of a referee , who is generally in charge of the game and watches action on the quarterback and in the offensive backfield; an umpire , who handles spotting the ball and watches action on the offensive line; and a head linesman , who supervises placement of the down box and line-to-gain chains.
The crew may also consist of a line judge , back judge , field judge and side judge , in the order listed: Officials are selected by the teams in advance or appointed by the governing league.
While the majority of officials at lower levels only officiate games on a part-time basis, the NFL is implementing a new system where seven officials will become full-time employees of the league, one for each official position i.
During the game, the officials are assisted in the administration of the game by other persons, including: These individuals may be provided by the teams involved — it is common for a high school coach's son or daughter to act as ball boy for the team.
Because football is a high- contact sport requiring a balance between offense and defense, many rules exist that regulate equality, safety, contact, and actions of players on each team.
It is very difficult to always avoid violating these rules without giving up too much of an advantage. Thus, an elaborate system of fouls and penalties has been developed to "let the punishment fit the crime" and maintain a balance between following the rules and keeping a good flow of the game.
Players are constantly looking for ways to find an advantage that stretches the limitations imposed by the rules. Also, the frequency and severity of fouls can make a large difference in the outcome of a game, so coaches are constantly looking for ways to minimize the number and severity of infractions committed by their players.
It is a common misconception that the term "penalty" is used to refer both to an infraction and the penal consequence of that infraction.
A foul is a rule infraction for which a penalty is prescribed. In most cases when a foul occurs, the offending team will be assessed a penalty of 5, 10 or 15 yards, depending on the foul.
Also, in most cases, if the foul is committed while the ball is in play, the down will be replayed from the new position for example, if the offense commits a foul on a first-down play, the next play will still be first down, but the offense may have to go 15 yards, or farther, to achieve another first down.
But if a defensive foul results in the ball advancing beyond the offense's first-down objective, the next play will be the first down of a new series.
Some penalties typically for more serious fouls , however, require a loss of down for the offense; and some defensive fouls may result in an automatic first down regardless of the ball position.
In all cases except for ejection of a player or, in rare cases, forfeiture of the game , the non-offending team is given the option of declining the penalty and letting the result of the play stand although the Referee may exercise this option on their behalf when it is obvious , if they believe it to be more to their advantage.
For some fouls by the defense, the penalty is applied in addition to the yardage gained on the play. Most personal fouls , which involve danger to another player, carry yard penalties; in rare cases, they result in offending players being ejected from the game.
In the NFL, if a defensive foul occurs after time has expired at the end of a half, the half will be continued for a single, untimed play from scrimmage.
Under college rules, any accepted penalty when time has expired at the end of any quarter results in an extension for one untimed down.
In the NFL, with three exceptions, no penalty may move the ball more than half the distance toward the penalized team's goal line.